Originally known as Chelyabinsk-40, the complex was later renamed to the Mayak Production Association and served as the location for the emerging Soviet nuclear program in the years immediately following World War II. [9] The acetate process is a special process which was never used in the West; the idea is to dissolve the fuel in nitric acid, alter the oxidation state of the plutonium, and then add acetic acid and base. [26][27] The incident has been speculated as partially inspiring the Russian science fiction novel Roadside Picnic. Known as the Kyshtym Disaster, the incident occurred at Mayak, a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant sequestered in the closed city of Ozyorsk, near the town of Kyshtym. In 1957 the cooling system in one of the tanks containing about 70–80 tons of liquid radioactive waste failed and was not repaired. These same problems occur in Soviet accidents, and later on in Japanese corporate culture. Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), How Solar Foods produce food from the air, one of the least dangerous ways to produce energy, Meltdown is published by Welbeck and is available from. Levy retells the stories like pacy thrillers, describing the unfolding drama with just enough technical and biographical detail to get a sense of who is involved and what is going on. Learn how your comment data is processed. But the work was not altogether wasted, for some of the interviews I did then, and saved, would have been impossible in the 1980s. [21] The area closest to the accident produced 66 diagnosed cases of chronic radiation syndrome, providing the bulk of the data about this condition.[22]. If you’re curious about nuclear technology or fascinated by incidents like Chernobyl, as many people are, then it’ll be worth a read. ( Log Out /  [11] Most of this contamination settled out near the site of the accident and contributed to the pollution of the Techa River, but a plume containing 2 MCi (80 PBq) of radionuclides spread out over hundreds of kilometers. This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about Kyshtym disaster across 25 in-depth pages. Map of the East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT): area contaminated by the Kyshtym disaster. As Levy notes, the actual harm to the public from Windscale was relatively low, but “effects were dramatic in terms of public opinion and the cultural and political discourse around nuclear energy.” In the United States, the Three Mile Island incident also “left a legacy of fear and suspicion out of all proportion to the actual harms that resulted.”. According to Gyorgy,[24] who invoked the Freedom of Information Act to gain access to the relevant Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) files, the CIA had known of the 1957 Mayak accident since 1959, but kept it secret to prevent adverse consequences for the fledgling American nuclear industry. The Kyshtym disaster was a radioactive contamination accident that occurred on 29 September 1957 at Mayak, a plutonium production site for nuclear weapons and nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in the Soviet Union. [4] By contrast, only 6,000 death certificates have been found for residents of the Techa riverside between 1950 and 1982 from all causes of death,[20] though perhaps the Soviet study considered a larger geographic area affected by the airborne plume. [12] Previously contaminated areas within the affected area include the Techa river, which had previously received 2.75 MCi (100 PBq) of deliberately dumped waste, and Lake Karachay, which had received 120 MCi (4,000 PBq). Change ). For that reason, a cooler was built around each bank, containing twenty tanks. It also makes detours into non-American events, but makes mistakes there: it says that the Kyshtym disaster … He has argued that a vast contaminated area exists east of the city of Kyshtym … So I read this book: Meltdown – Stories of nuclear disaster and the human cost of going critical. Where does the fear come from? The city of Kyshtym (55°42’N 60°34’E) is located on the east side of the Ural Mountains on the railroad … ( Log Out /  And it’s interesting to note how often bureaucracy is involved. Zhores Medvedev, a Soviet dissident, has written numerous journal articles as well as two books on the subject. The Kyshtym Disaster of 1957: The largest nuclear disaster we’ve never heard of Jan 17, 2018 Martin Chalakoski The nuclear-arms race of the Cold War era, particularly when “fought” between … [18] Medvedev's description of the disaster in the New Scientist was initially derided by Western nuclear industry sources, but the core of his story was soon confirmed by Professor Lev Tumerman, former head of the Biophysics Laboratory at the Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology in Moscow. However, ultimately there’s little by way of context in the book, not much sense of where nuclear power is today or how the technology has evolved. All six reactors were on Lake Kyzyltash and used an open-cycle cooling system, discharging contaminated water directly back into the lake. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFStandring2009 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFGusevGusʹkovaMettler2001 (, Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, "The Kyshtym Disaster: The Largest Nuclear Disaster You've Never Heard Of", https://www.cogentoa.com/article/10.1080/23312009.2018.1450944, "Kyshtym disaster | Causes, Concealment, Revelation, & Facts", "Russian village evacuation as rocket blast sparks radiation fears: Nyonoksa residents asked to leave within a day after last week's explosion that spiked radiation levels up to 16 times", "natural radioactivity exposition is 2,4 mS", International Association for Engineering Geology and the Environment, "Data Analysis and Physicochemical Modeling of the Radiation Accident in the Southern Urals in 1957", "Joint American-Russian Radiation Health Effects Research", United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, "Overview of Dose Assessment Developments and the Health of Riverside Residents Close to the "Mayak" PA Facilities, Russia", International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, "Soviets Tell About Nuclear Plant Disaster; 1957 Reactor Mishap May Be Worst Ever", "The Nuclear Disaster of Kyshtym 1957 and the Politics of the Cold War", Rachel Carson Center for Environment and Society, Focus on the 60th anniversary of the Kyshtym Accident and the Windscale Fire, An Analysis of the alleged Kyshtym Disaster, Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents, Vulnerability of nuclear plants to attack, Nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents, Nuclear and radiation accidents by death toll, Cancelled nuclear reactors in the United States, Inquiries into uranium mining in Australia, Nuclear and radiation fatalities by country, Nuclear weapons tests of the Soviet Union, Nuclear weapons tests of the United States, 1996 San Juan de Dios radiotherapy accident, 1990 Clinic of Zaragoza radiotherapy accident, Three Mile Island accident health effects, Thor missile launch failures at Johnston Atoll, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kyshtym_disaster&oldid=1001022193, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 21:55.
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