When the grave was finished, the man was asked if he would now be willing to talk. were physically sick and said 'These people are animals. Detainees were screened and re-screened for confessions and intelligence, then re-classified accordingly. [13] The Mau Mau Uprising created a rift between the European colonial community in Kenya and the metropole,[14] and also resulted in violent divisions within the Kikuyu community. If I see one now I shall shoot with the greatest eagerness'",[120] and it "even shocked many Mau Mau supporters, some of whom would subsequently try to excuse the attack as 'a mistake'". As a result of the situation in the highlands and growing job opportunities in the cities, thousands of Kikuyu migrated into cities in search of work, contributing to the doubling of Nairobi's population between 1938 and 1952. From the health point of view, I regard villagisation as being exceedingly dangerous and we are already starting to reap the benefits. On the 14th of January 1965, the Minister for Defence Dr Njoroge Mungai was quoted in the Daily Nation saying: "They are now outlaws, who will be pursued and brought to punishment. Basically you could get away with murder. century is in a large sense a history of colonialism. [150], For an extended period of time, the chief British weapon against the forest fighters was air power. Members of the 5th KAR B Company entered the Chuka area on 13 June 1953, to flush out rebels suspected of hiding in the nearby forests. [152][153] They and other aircraft, such as blimps, were also deployed for reconnaissance, as well as in the propaganda war, conducting large-scale leaflet-drops. Casual labourers leave their reserves to engage themselves to European employers for any period from one day upwards. Texas HS football star banned for attacking referee. [191] Within eighteen months, 1,050,899 Kikuyu in the reserves were inside 804 villages consisting of some 230,000 huts. In 1957, election to the Legislative Council was held for the first time. will be under a cloud. If so the outlook is grim. What does it mean when there is no flag flying at the White House? [292] According to the Kenyan Government, Mashujaa Day will be a time for Kenyans to remember and honour Mau Mau and other Kenyans who participated in the independence struggle. Colonial authorities classified it as a millenialist cult. This was widespread and, owing to the scattered nature of the homesteads, fear of detection was negligible; so, in the first instance, the inhabitants of those areas were made to build and live in concentrated villages. Electric shock was widely used, and so was fire. [54] The Kikuyu mounted a legal challenge against the expropriation of their land, but a Kenya High Court decision of 1921 reaffirmed its legality. Initially able to avoid the suspicion, they moved through colonial spaces and between Mau Mau hideouts and strongholds, to deliver vital supplies and services to guerrilla fighters including food, ammunition, medical care, and of course, information. [205], Caroline Elkins says "tens of thousands, perhaps hundreds of thousands" died. This took over power in 1945. [252] 42 potential claimants were interviewed from whom five were chosen to prosecute a test case; one of the five, Susan Ciong'ombe Ngondi, has since died. [173], The most famous example of side-switching was Peter Muigai Kenyatta—Jomo Kenyatta's son—who, after confessing, joined screeners at Athi River Camp, later travelling throughout the Pipeline to assist in interrogations. Whilst they [the Kikuyu] could not be expected to take kindly at first to a departure from their traditional way of life, such as living in villages, they need and desire to be told just what to do. [124], On 20 October 1952, Governor Baring signed an order declaring a state of emergency. This first step had to be taken speedily, somewhat to the detriment of usual health measures and was definitely a punitive short-term measure. compare and contrast India's national movement with the in which Kenya became independent. [166], The Pipeline operated a white-grey-black classification system: 'whites' were cooperative detainees, and were repatriated back to the reserves; 'greys' had been oathed but were reasonably compliant, and were moved down the Pipeline to works camps in their local districts before release; and 'blacks' were the so-called 'hard core' of Mau Mau. Existing scholarly literature on the Indian anti-settler movement in Kenya has studied this political crisis from the … [189] The means to this terminal end was originally suggested by the man brought in by the colonial government to do an ethnopsychiatric 'diagnosis' of the uprising, JC Carothers: he advocated a Kenyan version of the villagisation programmes that the British were already using in places like Malaya. Hundreds of thousands were beaten or sexually assaulted to extract information about the Mau Mau threat. 12 July 2000. find out about ways of the anti colonial moement in Kenya One courageous judge in Nairobi explicitly drew the parallel: Kenya's Belsen, he called one camp. If the British had hoped that by stationing their troops in Egyptin response to the Orabi Revolt of 1882 they would effectively control thenative Egyptian population and cripple the emergence of any nationalistmovement, then the policy by all measures backfired. However, the state of emergency simply provided the opportunity for the colonial government to do what it had long wanted to do – suppress the independent schools movement (Adebola, 1981; Natsoulas 1998). [195], He noted, however, that the British should have "no illusions about the future. Squaring up to the seamier side of empire is long overdue", "Colonial secret papers to be made public", "Mau Mau case casts light on colonial records", "Hundreds more top secret files missing in Mau Mau abuse case", "The colonial papers: FCO transparency is a carefully cultivated myth", "Mau Mau torture case: Kenyans win ruling against UK", "The Kenyans tortured by the British must now be justly treated", "Fury as Britain fights ruling on Kenya torture victims", "Kenyan Mau Mau victims in talks with UK government over legal settlement", "Kenyan Mau Mau: official policy was to cover up brutal mistreatment", "Statement to Parliament on settlement of Mau Mau claims", "Speech to the 52nd Commemoration of the Memory of Dedan Kimathi", "Nationalism, Ethnicity, and Modernity: The Paradox of Mau Mau", "The Enemy Within: Loyalists and the War Against Mau Mau in Kenya", "Air Power in the Mau Mau Conflict: The Government's Chief Weapon", "Alchemy of Evidence: Mau Mau, the British Empire, and the High Court of Justice", "Mau Mau and the Decolonisation of Kenya", Journal of Military and Strategic Studies, Colonial Film's archive footage of Mau Mau, "Lost" Mau Mau-era government-documents posted by the BBC's Dominic Casciani, Surrender Pass issued under Baring's 18 January 1955 Amnesty, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mau_Mau_Uprising&oldid=1001868385, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 3,000 Native Kenyan police and soldiers killed, This page was last edited on 21 January 2021, at 19:32. "[139], While some of these villages were to protect loyalist Kikuyu, "most were little more than concentration camps to punish Mau Mau sympathizers. [48] In Nyanza the Commission restricted 1,029,422 native Kenyans to 7,114 square miles (18,430 km2), while granting 16,700 square miles (43,000 km2) to 17,000 Europeans. [99][276] An example of this impunity is the case of eight colonial officials accused of having prisoners tortured to death going unpunished even after their actions were reported to London. [205], The lack of food did not just affect the children, of course. The anti-British group had launched a guerrilla war against British settlers and Kenyan loyalists from the forests of central Kenya. Mau Mau has not been cured: it has been suppressed. [185] Wamumu Camp was set up solely for all the unaccompanied boys in the Pipeline, though hundreds, maybe thousands, of boys moved around the adult parts of the Pipeline. [177], —Memorandum to Commissioner of Prisons John 'Taxi' Lewis "[194] The villagisation programme was the coup de grâce for Mau Mau. [21], Another possible origin is a mishearing of the Kikuyu word for oath: "muuma". In the cities the colonial authorities decided to dispel tensions by raising urban wages, thereby strengthening the hand of moderate union organisations like the KFRTU. Have been two traditions: moderate-conservative and radical compare and contrast india 's national movement with the native Kenyan were... Kikuyu history, there have been embittered by it an unknown number also fought in the long of... Dh Vampire jets flew in from Aden, but May still be detained Churchill... Imposed on large areas of the Mau Mau threat anti-British group had launched a guerrilla war against British and! ] all of the Emergency. [ 85 ] coupled with a relaxation of the Kikuyu related! Europeans in the long march of decolonization course of a conflict, leaders on both sides will use argument! 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